MMA Odds: Fedor Emelianenko vs. Fabricio Werdum

There is no question that Strikeforce is well below the UFC on the mixed martial arts odds pecking order in terms of popularity and betting action. However, one Strikeforce fighter, Fedor Emelianenko, the world’s top-ranked heavyweight, can match the star power of just about any UFC fighter, and Emelianenko returns to action on Saturday night against UFC and Pride veteran Fabricio Werdum at an event co-promoted by Strikeforce and M-1 Global in San Jose, Calif. The card will be televised by Showtime.

Many consider Emelianenko the top pound-for-pound fighter in the world and maybe the best ever in MMA. Last year the Russian turned down a contract offer from the UFC and decided to stick with his own promotion, M-1 Global, and fight on co-promoted cards with Strikeforce.

Why did he do that? It’s all about money as M-1 said this week he’s the highest-paid fighter in all of MMA — although obviously M-1 can’t really know what UFC guys are making.

This bout was supposed to take place in April and earlier this month in Los Angeles but contract issues got in the way. Emelianenko is 31-1, a record that ranks among the best winning percentages in MMA history.

In his Strikeforce debut in November, Fedor won a vicious fight by second-round technical knockout of then-undefeated Brett Rogers. “The Last Emperor” has finished each of his past eight bouts via submission or knockout and has 21 first-round finishes overall. He hasn’t gone to a decision since beating Mirko Cro Cop five years ago.

Emelianenko is currently a big -800 favorite on Bodog’s MMA betting lines against Werdum (13-4-1), who is considered somewhat of a journeyman and is the +500 underdog. The Brazilian is a jiu-jitsu specialist, with seven of his victories coming via submission and he has only been finished once in his career. He is on a two-fight winning streak, coming over Mike Kyle and Antonio Silva.

Werdum holds submission victories over Emelianenko’s younger brother, Aleksander, and reigning Strikeforce heavyweight champion Alistair Overeem. Werdum was just 2-2 in his brief UFC career.

For the most part Strikeforce matches see significantly less betting action at Bodog’s online sportsbook than even a preliminary UFC matchup. But the exception to this rule is when Emelianenko is fighting as he ranks fifth on our list of all active fighters in terms of handle in his matches. So we expect to see action comparable to a UFC main event bout on this one (although not as big of a handle as next week’s Brock Lesnar-Shane Carwin UFC 116 heavyweight fight).

Fedor easily is the most popular fighter among the betting public who is not currently in the UFC – that organization has made several attempts to sign Emelianenko, but negotiations fell through in 2007 and 2009. It will probably try again as UFC president Dana White continues to express his interest.

We opened Emelianenko at -1100, but heavy betting on Werdum moved the bout to where it is now. The fight is now seeing two-sided action at this number but the book is still holding a small decision based on the earlier +600 number on Werdum, who is fighting as an underdog for the first time since UFC 85 in June 2008 when he beat Brandon Verra with a first-round TKO. That improved Werdum to 2-0 in his career as the betting dog.

Emelianenko opening at -1100 was the highest opening number of his career. It also made him the biggest betting favorite in the fairly brief history of Strikeforce. Fedor is 4-0 when he is the betting favorite.

Bodog will have odds up on the undercard bouts – Cris Cyborg (considered the world’s top female fighter) vs. Jan Finney, Scott Smith vs. Cung Le and Josh Thomson vs. Pat Healy — on Thursday.

2001 Asheville, North Carolina (AVL)

Weather Almanac January 1, 2004 2001 ASHEVILLE, NORTH CAROLINA (AVL) The city of Asheville is located on both banks of the French Broad River, near the center of the French Broad Basin. Upstream from Asheville, the valley runs south for 18 miles and then curves toward the south???southwest. Downstream from the city, the valley is oriented toward the north???northwest. Two miles upstream from the principal section of Asheville, the Swannanoa River joins the French Broad from the east. The entire valley is known as the Asheville Plateau, having an average elevation near 2,200 feet above sea level, and is flanked by mountain ridges to the east and west, whose peaks range from 2,000 to 4,400 feet above the valley floor. At the Carolina???Tennessee border, about 25 miles north???northwest of Asheville, a relatively high ridge of mountains blocks the northern end of the valley. Thirty miles south, the Blue Ridge Mountains form an escarpment, having a general elevation of about 2,700 feet above sea level. The tallest peaks near Asheville are Mt. Mitchell, 6,684 feet above sea level, 20 miles northeast of the city, and Big Pisgah Mountain, 5,72l feet above sea level, 16 miles to the southwest.

Asheville has a temperate, but invigorating, climate. Considerable variation in temperature often occurs from day to day in summer, as well as during the other seasons.

While the office was located in the city, the combination of roof exposure conditions and a smoke blanket, caused by inversions in temperature in the valley on quiet nights, resulted in higher early morning temperatures at City Office sites than were experienced nearer ground level in nearby rural areas. The growing season in this area is of sufficient length for commercial crops, the average length of freeze???free period being about 195 days. The average last occurrence in spring of a temperature 32 degrees or lower is mid???April and the average first occurrence in fall of 32 degrees is late October.

The orientation of the French Broad Valley appears to have a pronounced influence on the wind direction. Prevailing winds are from the northwest during all months of the year. Also, the shielding effect of the nearby mountain barriers apparently has a direct bearing on the annual amount of precipitation received in this vicinity. In an area northwest of Asheville, the average annual precipitation is the lowest in North Carolina. Precipitation increases sharply in all other directions, especially to the south and southwest.

Destructive events caused directly by meteorological conditions are infrequent. The most frequent, occurring at approximately 12???year intervals, are floods on the French Broad River. These floods are usually associated with heavy rains caused by storms moving out of the Gulf of Mexico. Snowstorms which have seriously disrupted normal life in this community are infrequent. Hailstorms that cause property damage are extremely rare. here asheville north carolina

NORMALS, MEANS, AND EXTREMES ASHEVILLE, NC (AVL) LATITUDE:? ? ? ? LONGITUDE:? ? ? ? ELEVATION (FT):? ? ? ? TIME ZONE:? ? ? ? WBAN: 03812 35 26??? 09??? N? ? 82 32??? 21??? W? ? GRND:? ? 2171? ? BARO:? ? 2174? ? EASTERN (UTC + 5)
ELEMENT
POR
JAN
FEB
MAR
APR
MAY
JUN
JUL
AUG
SEP
OCT
NOV
DEC
YEAR
TEMPERATURE F
NORMAL DAILY MAXIMUM
30
46.5
50.0
59.2
67.8
75.0
80.4
83.0
82.1
76.9
68.3
59.3
50.3
66.6

MEAN DAILY MAXIMUM
44
47.7
51.3
58.8
68.2
75.3
81.6
84.4
83.2
77.2
68.7
58.4
50.5
67.1

HIGHEST DAILY MAXIMUM
37
80
78
83
89
93
96
96
100
92
86
81
78
100

YEAR OF OCCURRENCE

1999
1996
1985
1972
1996
1969
1988
1983
1998
1986
1974
1971
AUG 1983

MEAN OF EXTREME MAXS.
44
65.5
69.5
76.5
83.1
85.9
90.0
92.0
90.6
87.0
80.9
73.7
67.6
80.2

NORMAL DAILY MINIMUM
30
24.8
27.4
35.4
42.6
50.9
58.3
62.7
61.9
55.5
43.5
35.7
28.6
43.9

MEAN DAILY MINIMUM
44
26.6
28.6
34.7
42.3
50.5
58.4
62.8
61.8
55.0
43.0
34.4
28.8
43.9

LOWEST DAILY MINIMUM
37
-16
-2
2
22
28
35
44
42
30
21
8
-7
-16

YEAR OF OCCURRENCE

1985
1967
1993
1987
1989
1966
1988
1986
1967
1976
1970
1983
JAN 1985

MEAN OF EXTREME MINS.
44
8.1
11.5
19.1
27.5
35.1
45.5
54.2
52.0
40.6
27.7
19.1
11.9
29.4

NORMAL DRY BULB
30
35.7
38.7
47.4
55.2
63.0
69.4
72.8
72.0
66.2
55.9
47.5
39.5
55.3

MEAN DRY BULB
44
37.3
40.0
46.8
55.3
62.9
70.0
73.7
72.4
66.3
55.9
46.5
39.6
55.6

MEAN WET BULB
15
32.9
36.1
41.0
48.1
57.0
64.4
67.7
66.8
60.8
50.6
42.4
32.6
50.0

MEAN DEW POINT
15
27.0
29.5
33.9
41.0
52.8
61.4
65.0
64.5
58.0
46.0
36.9
27.1
45.3

NORMAL NO. DAYS WITH:

MAXIMUM 90
30
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
2.1
4.4
2.5
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
9.4

MAXIMUM 32
30
3.4
1.7
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
1.0
6.4

MINIMUM 32
30
23.9
20.8
13.3
4.3
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
*
4.4
13.0
20.7
100.7

MINIMUM 0
30
0.5
*
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.6
H/C
NORMAL HEATING DEG. DAYS
30
908
736
546
298
117
18
5
5
64
295
525
791
4308

NORMAL COOLING DEG. DAYS
30
0
0
0
0
55
150
247
222
100
13
0
0
787
RH
NORMAL (PERCENT)
30
73
70
68
66
75
79
82
84
84
78
75
74
76

HOUR 01 LST
30
80
78
79
78
89
93
95
96
96
91
86
82
87

HOUR 07 LST
30
85
84
85
85
92
94
96
98
97
94
88
86
90

HOUR 13 LST
30
59
56
53
50
56
59
63
64
64
57
57
59
58

HOUR 19 LST
30
67
62
60
56
66
70
74
78
81
74
70
70
69
S
PERCENT POSSIBLE SUNSHINE
32
55
59
61
66
61
62
60
54
56
62
58
55
59
W/O
MEAN NO. DAYS WITH:

HEAVY FOG(VISBY 1/4 MI)
38
4.1
2.9
2.1
2.5
5.2
8.3
8.8
12.3
11.2
7.9
4.2
4.5
74.0

THUNDERSTORMS
38
0.5
1.0
2.2
3.2
6.4
7.9
8.8
7.6
3.1
0.8
0.8
0.3
42.6
CLOUDINESS
MEAN:

SUNRISE-SUNSET (OKTAS)
32
5.0
4.8
4.9
4.6
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
4.8
4.0
4.3
4.7
4.8

MIDNIGHT-MIDNIGHT (OKTAS)
32
4.9
4.7
4.7
4.4
4.8
4.7
4.8
5.0
4.7
4.0
4.1
4.5
4.6

MEAN NO. DAYS WITH:

CLEAR
33
9.1
8.7
8.8
9.6
7.2
6.2
5.0
4.8
6.7
11.6
10.2
9.3
97.2

PARTLY CLOUDY
33
7.3
6.4
8.1
8.5
10.4
12.0
13.4
13.1
10.2
7.8
6.9
7.0
111.1

CLOUDY
33
14.6
13.2
14.1
11.8
13.3
11.8
11.7
12.2
12.2
10.7
11.9
13.7
151.2
PR
MEAN STATION PRESSURE(IN)
28
27.80
27.79
27.80
27.80
27.80
27.80
27.90
27.90
27.90
27.90
27.89
27.80
27.84

MEAN SEA-LEVEL PRES. (IN)
16
30.12
30.10
30.05
30.02
30.03
30.03
30.07
30.07
30.10
30.14
30.15
30.15
30.09
WINDS
MEAN SPEED (MPH)
37
9.3
9.2
9.2
8.7
6.9
5.9
5.9
5.5
5.6
6.8
8.1
8.8
7.5

PREVAIL. DIR (TENS OF DEGS)
30
34
34
34
34
34
34
34
34
34
34
34
34
34

MAXIMUM 2-MINUTE:

SPEED (MPH)
5
45
43
47
38
33
32
41
41
45
33
36
33
47

DIR. (TENS OF DEGS)

34
33
32
32
32
32
33
30
36
32
32
34
32

YEAR OF OCCURRENCE

2000
2001
2001
1997
2000
1998
2001
2000
1999
1997
1999
2001
MAR 2001

MAXIMUM 5-SECOND:

SPEED (MPH)
5
53
49
56
47
45
46
49
53
54
39
43
40
56

DIR. (TENS OF DEGS)

31
32
31
01
27
10
31
30
36
33
36
33
31

YEAR OF OCCURRENCE

2000
2001
2001
2001
2000
2000
2001
2000
1999
2001
1999
2001
MAR 2001
PRECIPITATION
NORMAL (IN)
30
3.25
3.91
4.63
3.36
4.43
4.23
4.52
4.69
3.87
3.59
3.59
3.52
47.59

MAXIMUM MONTHLY (IN)
37
9.96
8.07
9.86
8.70
8.83
10.73
9.92
11.28
9.12
8.82
7.76
8.48
11.28

YEAR OF OCCURRENCE

1998
1990
1975
1998
1973
1989
1982
1967
1977
1990
1979
1973
AUG 1967

MINIMUM MONTHLY (IN)
37
0.45
0.44
0.77
0.25
1.06
0.90
0.46
0.52
0.16
0.00
1.19
0.16
0.00

YEAR OF OCCURRENCE

1981
1978
1985
1976
1988
1990
1986
1981
1984
2000
1981
1965
OCT 2000

MAXIMUM IN 24 HOURS (IN)
37
4.67
3.47
5.13
3.06
4.95
4.36
4.02
5.10
3.41
4.22
4.03
2.66
5.13

YEAR OF OCCURRENCE

1998
1982
1968
1973
1973
1997
1969
1990
1975
1995
1977
1973
MAR 1968

NORMAL NO. DAYS WITH:

PRECIPITATION 0.01
30
10.1
9.5
11.3
9.5
11.8
10.8
12.1
12.3
9.3
8.2
9.2
9.8
123.9

PRECIPITATION 1.00
30
0.6
0.8
1.2
1.0
1.2
0.9
1.1
1.0
1.0
0.9
1.1
1.0
11.8
SNOWFALL
NORMAL (IN)
30
5.0
5.3
2.5
0.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
T
0.8
1.9
16.2

MAXIMUM MONTHLY (IN)
37
17.6
25.5
18.2
11.5
T
T
T
T
0.0
T
9.6
16.3
25.5

YEAR OF OCCURRENCE

1966
1969
1993
1987
1993
1995
1994
1990

1993
1968
1971
FEB 1969

MAXIMUM IN 24 HOURS (IN)
37
14.0
11.7
16.5
11.5
T
T
T
T
0.0
T
5.7
16.3
16.5

YEAR OF OCCURRENCE

1988
1969
1993
1987

1993
1995
1994
1990
1993
1968
1971
MAR 1993

MAXIMUM SNOW DEPTH (IN)
42
14
13
18
12
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
14
18

YEAR OF OCCURRENCE

1988
1969
1993
1987

1968
1971
MAR 1993

NORMAL NO. DAYS WITH:

SNOWFALL 1.0
30
1.4
1.5
0.7
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.5
4.5
PRECIPITATION (inches) 2001 ASHEVILLE, NC (AVL)
YEAR
JAN
FEB
MAR
APR
MAY
JUN
JUL
AUG
SEP
OCT
NOV
DEC
ANNUAL
1972
3.57
2.02
3.19
1.49
6.63
6.54
4.66
1.88
5.29
4.44
4.42
3.89
48.02
1973
4.26
4.23
8.91
5.71
8.83
3.87
6.95
4.57
3.12
2.41
3.57
8.48
64.91
1974
3.44
4.24
3.18
4.99
5.58
3.73
3.93
7.34
4.13
1.28
4.22
2.38
48.44
1975
3.86
4.56
9.86
0.61
8.17
2.12
3.31
3.63
7.53
3.94
4.89
4.44
56.92
1976
3.51
2.20
4.96
0.25
8.67
5.51
3.18
4.23
3.50
5.59
1.58
4.05
47.23
1977
2.09
1.02
7.29
4.05
3.96
5.11
1.03
3.68
9.12
3.79
6.88
2.43
50.45
1978
7.47
0.44
5.22
2.97
4.65
2.29
0.63
6.91
2.57
0.30
2.49
4.32
40.26
1979
6.81
5.14
5.72
7.26
5.35
2.20
5.52
3.63
5.60
1.40
7.76
1.05
57.44
1980
2.85
0.53
8.26
4.77
4.54
4.68
2.21
2.38
4.36
2.62
3.04
0.59
40.83
1981
0.45
4.80
3.24
2.07
7.50
4.41
2.06
0.52
1.36
2.19
1.19
4.79
34.58
1982
5.41
7.02
1.92
3.62
3.78
3.98
9.92
1.73
1.33
3.48
4.59
4.04
50.82
1983
3.39
5.63
6.27
5.27
3.48
3.71
1.06
0.95
5.66
4.43
4.77
8.30
52.92
1984
2.36
6.43
4.82
4.05
6.62
3.69
5.88
5.02
0.16
2.73
2.61
1.34
45.71
1985
2.95
4.74
0.77
2.74
1.59
1.47
4.37
7.04
1.25
3.41
4.91
0.70
35.94
1986
1.11
1.85
2.75
0.57
3.55
1.28
0.46
6.10
3.15
4.19
5.28
4.28
34.57
1987
3.49
6.17
2.85
3.67
1.87
8.94
1.86
1.79
6.79
0.36
3.09
2.33
43.21
1988
3.71
0.88
1.31
3.46
1.06
0.94
2.65
1.78
2.79
3.12
3.47
1.41
26.58
1989
1.65
4.61
2.91
3.17
5.54
10.73
8.33
4.98
8.17
2.98
4.27
3.29
60.63
1990
3.27
8.07
5.95
1.96
5.09
0.90
6.55
7.78
1.43
8.82
1.55
4.50
55.87
1991
3.25
1.66
6.13
5.38
2.41
5.27
6.07
3.83
1.27
0.19
3.34
4.86
43.66
1992
3.08
3.66
3.52
3.99
6.18
6.62
1.10
7.64
3.15
4.15
7.24
3.71
54.04
1993
3.82
2.03
6.16
3.21
4.59
1.12
2.07
5.29
1.56
1.21
3.32
3.59
37.97
1994
5.35
5.11
7.52
3.30
1.74
5.89
6.76
6.01
5.33
4.27
3.15
3.03
57.46
1995
7.03
2.93
2.42
0.98
6.04
8.89
3.61
9.22
1.95
7.23
3.66
1.43
55.39
1996
7.22
2.71
3.36
2.00
2.55
3.54
4.83
6.68
5.22
0.68
4.45
3.92
47.16
1997
4.44
5.29
5.48
5.26
2.91
8.29
2.97
1.37
4.89
3.90
1.60
2.98
49.38
1998
9.96
6.38
3.71
8.70
2.22
3.64
1.97
2.23
1.62
1.79
2.76
3.04
48.02
1999
6.38
3.29
2.82
2.44
2.53
4.39
3.85
3.37
2.20
3.29
3.31
1.98
39.85
2000
3.10
2.33
3.82
5.11
1.27
2.78
2.84
4.45
3.27
0.00
4.25
2.37
35.59
2001
2.63
2.73
5.00
1.32
2.47
2.91
5.50
3.20
4.37
0.60
1.42
2.34
34.49
POR=36 YRS
3.70
3.78
4.56
3.40
4.31
4.25
4.21
4.56
3.65
3.20
3.52
3.35
46.49
AVERAGE TEMPERATURE (F) 2001 ASHEVILLE, NC (AVL)
YEAR
JAN
FEB
MAR
APR
MAY
JUN
JUL
AUG
SEP
OCT
NOV
DEC
ANNUAL
1972
42.1
37.6
46.5
55.8
61.2
66.5
72.3
72.5
69.0
55.0
45.5
45.2
55.8
1973
37.5
38.5
52.7
52.8
60.3
71.0
74.1
74.2
70.0
58.8
49.1
39.8
56.6
1974
48.2
40.5
51.1
54.9
64.2
66.7
72.9
72.3
65.7
54.6
47.4
40.3
56.6
1975
41.7
42.5
44.8
54.1
66.0
68.8
72.4
72.9
65.2
57.3
48.2
38.6
56.0
1976
33.6
45.3
50.6
54.9
59.5
68.1
71.2
70.2
63.1
51.5
41.2
36.2
53.8
1977
24.8
37.4
50.7
58.2
64.6
69.7
75.7
73.8
69.1
54.3
49.3
36.8
55.4
1978
29.3
33.4
45.9
56.8
62.0
71.1
73.4
74.1
70.0
55.7
51.8
41.0
55.4
1979
34.2
35.8
50.0
55.9
64.3
68.8
72.2
73.2
66.5
55.3
49.2
42.0
55.6
1980
40.5
35.1
46.2
56.5
64.8
71.7
77.5
74.8
70.2
54.7
47.1
39.6
56.6
1981
33.3
39.9
44.9
60.1
60.7
74.3
75.0
71.7
66.1
54.5
48.2
35.8
55.4
1982
32.3
41.2
50.0
53.6
67.3
71.5
74.6
71.7
64.5
56.3
47.1
44.9
56.3
1983
36.7
38.8
46.7
51.1
61.6
69.0
75.7
76.5
66.6
57.5
47.3
36.4
55.3
1984
34.0
40.5
44.8
51.7
59.9
70.0
70.6
71.6
62.8
62.7
43.1
46.3
54.8
1985
30.5
38.3
48.1
56.6
62.6
69.8
72.2
70.9
64.2
60.5
56.0
34.7
55.4
1986
35.0
42.2
46.0
56.0
63.3
71.7
76.1
70.9
68.0
57.4
50.7
39.8
56.4
1987
35.3
38.9
46.5
52.6
66.7
71.2
74.7
74.7
66.5
50.1
47.0
42.2
55.5
1988
32.1
37.1
47.1
54.6
61.1
69.3
73.8
74.6
66.3
50.2
46.7
38.7
54.3
1989
42.1
39.8
50.3
54.5
59.4
70.0
73.3
71.9
65.8
56.1
46.2
31.6
55.1
1990
42.8
45.6
50.4
54.2
63.3
70.9
73.8
73.9
67.6
57.8
49.9
45.5
58.0
1991
39.2
42.5
49.6
58.4
67.3
70.3
75.2
72.1
67.3
57.0
45.5
43.4
57.3
1992
40.7
44.2
46.3
55.9
59.9
68.1
74.9
70.4
67.8
54.4
46.2
39.2
55.7
1993
42.0
38.0
43.0
52.6
63.2
71.4
78.0
73.9
67.8
55.0
46.0
36.8
55.6
1994
32.4
40.6
47.3
58.5
60.2
72.6
73.1
71.4
64.6
55.9
50.1
43.6
55.9
1995
38.9
38.4
49.4
56.4
64.1
68.5
75.0
75.3
65.4
56.8
43.3
37.1
55.7
1996
35.3
39.5
41.4
53.6
66.1
69.6
72.0
71.5
64.4
55.8
42.3
40.5
54.3
1997
36.5
43.2
51.5
51.5
58.4
66.5
73.4
70.6
66.1
55.4
42.3
36.9
54.4
1998
41.3
42.2
43.9
54.1
66.5
71.7
74.9
73.4
70.3
58.3
49.2
43.9
57.5
1999
41.7
42.4
42.9
58.5
61.9
69.3
74.3
74.1
65.6
56.0
51.3
41.9
56.7
2000
36.0
43.3
49.9
53.0
66.2
70.6
72.8
71.7
65.2
57.2
44.6
32.5
55.3
2001
36.7
44.5
44.6
58.2
64.0
70.5
72.9
73.8
64.5
53.9
51.7
44.8
56.7
POR=37 YRS
36.6
39.6
46.9
55.3
62.9
69.9
73.6
72.5
66.5
55.9
47.0
39.9
55.6
REFERENCE NOTES: go to web site asheville north carolina

PAGE 1:

THE TEMPERATURE GRAPH SHOWS NORMAL MAXIMUM AND NORMAL MINIMUM DAILY TEMPERATURES (SOLID CURVES) AND THE ACTUAL DAILY HIGH AND LOW TEMPERATURES (VERTICAL BARS).

PAGE 2 AND 3:

H/C INDICATES HEATING AND COOLING DEGREE DAYS.

RH INDICATES RELATIVE HUMIDITY W/O INDICATES WEATHER AND OBSTRUCTIONS S INDICATES SUNSHINE.

PR INDICATES PRESSURE.

CLOUDINESS ON PAGE 3 IS THE SUM OF THE CEILOMETER AND SATELLITE DATA NOT TO EXCEED EIGHT EIGHTHS (OKTAS).

GENERAL:

T INDICATES TRACE PRECIPITATION, AN AMOUNT GREATER THAN ZERO BUT LESS THAN THE LOWEST REPORTABLE VALUE.

+ INDICATES THE VALUE ALSO OCCURS ON EARLIER DATES.

BLANK ENTRIES DENOTE MISSING OR UNREPORTED DATA.

NORMALS ARE 30???YEAR AVERAGES (1961???1990).

ASOS INDICATES AUTOMATED SURFACE OBSERVING SYSTEM.

PM INDICATES THE LAST DAY OF THE PREVIOUS MONTH.

POR (PERIOD OF RECORD) BEGINS WITH THE JANUARY DATA MONTH AND IS THE NUMBER OF YEARS USED TO COMPUTE THE MEAN. INDIVIDUAL MONTHS WITHIN THE POR MAY BE MISSING.

WHEN THE POR FOR A NORMAL IS LESS THAN 30 YEARS, THE NORMAL IS PROVISIONAL AND IS BASED ON THE NUMBER OF YEARS INDICATED.

0.* OR * INDICATES THE VALUE OR MEAN???DAYS???WITH IS BETWEEN 0.00 AND 0.05.

CLOUDINESS FOR ASOS STATIONS DIFFERS FROM THE NON???ASOS OBSERVATION TAKEN BY A HUMAN OBSERVER. ASOS STATION CLOUDINESS IS BASED ON TIME???AVERAGED CEILOMETER DATA FOR CLOUDS AT OR BELOW 12,000 FEET AND ON SATELLITE DATA FOR CLOUDS ABOVE 12,000 FEET.

THE NUMBER OF DAYS WITH CLEAR, PARTLY CLOUDY, AND CLOUDY CONDITIONS FOR ASOS STATIONS IS THE SUM OF THE CEILOMETER AND SATELLITE DATA FOR THE SUNRISE TO SUNSET PERIOD.

GENERAL CONTINUED:

CLEAR INDICATES 0???2 OKTAS, PARTLY CLOUDY INDICATES 3???6 OKTAS, AND CLOUDY INDICATES 7 OR 8 OKTAS. WHEN AT LEAST ONE OF THE ELEMENTS (CEILOMETER OR SATELLITE) IS MISSING, THE DAILY CLOUDINESS IS NOT COMPUTED.

WIND DIRECTION IS RECORDED IN TENS OF DEGREES (2 DIGITS) CLOCKWISE FROM TRUE NORTH. “00″ INDICATES CALM. “36″ INDICATES TRUE NORTH.

RESULTANT WIND IS THE VECTOR AVERAGE OF THE SPEED AND DIRECTION.

AVERAGE TEMPERATURE IS THE SUM OF THE MEAN DAILY MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM TEMPERATURE DIVIDED BY 2.

SNOWFALL DATA COMPRISE ALL FORMS OF FROZEN PRECIPITATION, INCLUDING HAIL.

A HEATING (COOLING) DEGREE DAY IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE AVERAGE DAILY TEMPERATURE AND 65 F.

DRY BULB IS THE TEMPERATURE OF THE AMBIENT AIR.

DEW POINT IS THE TEMPERATURE TO WHICH THE AIR MUST BE COOLED TO ACHIEVE 100 PERCENT RELATIVE HUMIDITY.

WET BULB IS THE TEMPERATURE THE AIR WOULD HAVE IF THE MOISTURE CONTENT WAS INCREASED TO 100 PERCENT RELATIVE HUMIDITY.

ON JULY 1, 1996, THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE BEGAN USING THE “METAR” OBSERVATION CODE THAT WAS ALREADY EMPLOYED BY MOST OTHER NATIONS OF THE WORLD. THE MOST NOTICEABLE DIFFERENCE IN THIS ANNUAL PUBLICATION WILL BE THE CHANGE IN UNITS FROM TENTHS TO EIGHTS (OKTAS) FOR REPORTING THE AMOUNT OF SKY COVER.

HEATING DEGREE DAYS (base 65 F) 2001 ASHEVILLE, NC (AVL)
YEAR
JUL
AUG
SEP
OCT
NOV
DEC
JAN
FEB
MAR
APR
MAY
JUN
TOTAL
1972-73
3
0
8
304
578
605
846
737
374
362
158
0
3975
1973-74
0
0
7
205
473
772
516
680
423
299
83
24
3482
1974-75
0
0
65
316
519
760
715
624
619
331
46
7
4002
1975-76
0
0
77
232
498
812
966
566
439
296
168
33
4087
1976-77
2
3
83
411
706
884
1239
768
437
198
66
25
4822
1977-78
0
0
14
331
466
868
1101
878
586
241
139
0
4624
1978-79
0
0
12
283
390
741
951
810
457
268
71
18
4001
1979-80
5
0
44
299
468
707
753
861
573
258
65
2
4035
1980-81
0
0
37
315
533
778
978
696
615
152
152
0
4256
1981-82
0
1
57
326
499
897
1006
659
458
333
38
0
4274
1982-83
0
0
74
274
531
616
872
725
562
410
127
13
4204
1983-84
0
0
84
229
527
882
955
706
618
391
176
9
4577
1984-85
1
0
107
91
648
576
1064
737
520
249
109
19
4121
1985-86
0
6
111
156
266
932
923
633
581
273
91
2
3974
1986-87
0
32
16
268
419
774
913
725
567
369
40
1
4124
1987-88
0
0
47
452
532
702
1013
802
545
308
132
31
4564
1988-89
5
0
33
453
544
808
702
698
454
331
200
4
4232
1989-90
1
8
74
279
558
1028
679
535
446
321
91
3
4023
1990-91
0
0
55
229
445
601
793
627
472
204
53
16
3495
1991-92
0
1
64
242
578
663
748
596
573
274
169
25
3933
1992-93
0
0
34
324
558
794
708
751
677
365
82
9
4302
1993-94
0
0
44
310
563
866
1005
676
544
206
165
0
4379
1994-95
0
1
52
276
441
656
803
736
474
264
87
17
3807
1995-96
0
0
50
255
645
856
912
735
725
341
78
20
4617
1996-97
0
0
76
284
673
753
876
601
412
400
212
64
4351
1997-98
0
5
35
292
675
863
727
631
647
322
71
23
4291
1998-99
0
0
11
214
465
649
718
627
680
210
100
7
3681
1999-00
6
0
56
274
405
705
893
621
460
353
41
11
3825
2000-01
1
1
88
238
607
998
872
566
628
222
63
1
4285
2001-
0
0
97
340
391
620

COOLING DEGREE DAYS (base 65 F) 2001 ASHEVILLE, NC (AVL)
YEAR
JAN
FEB
MAR
APR
MAY
JUN
JUL
AUG
SEP
OCT
NOV
DEC
ANNUAL
1972
0
0
0
24
6
84
236
237
134
0
1
0
722
1973
0
0
0
1
16
190
288
292
163
19
0
0
969
1974
0
0
0
3
65
82
254
234
92
1
0
0
731
1975
0
0
0
11
82
124
237
252
89
0
0
0
795
1976
0
0
0
0
5
135
198
170
35
2
0
0
545
1977
0
0
0
2
59
173
340
279
146
7
1
0
1007
1978
0
0
0
2
53
188
266
292
168
4
0
0
973
1979
0
0
0
1
55
141
234
261
96
4
0
0
792
1980
0
0
0
8
64
210
396
311
198
4
0
0
1191
1981
0
0
0
10
25
286
316
213
98
7
0
0
955
1982
0
0
0
0
117
206
305
215
64
16
0
0
923
1983
0
0
0
0
25
139
335
362
141
5
0
0
1007
1984
0
0
0
0
25
165
180
211
49
27
0
0
657
1985
0
0
5
2
43
170
229
194
90
25
4
0
762
1986
0
0
0
8
43
209
353
222
112
38
0
0
985
1987
0
0
0
7
97
192
310
309
97
0
0
0
1012
1988
0
0
0
0
18
168
282
304
79
3
0
0
854
1989
0
0
5
23
34
159
264
229
107
11
0
0
832
1990
0
0
0
3
48
187
279
283
141
11
0
0
952
1991
0
0
3
13
132
181
324
227
139
3
0
0
1022
1992
0
0
0
7
20
125
313
174
125
0
0
0
764
1993
0
0
0
0
37
210
411
285
133
5
0
0
1081
1994
0
0
0
15
21
233
259
205
43
2
0
0
778
1995
0
0
1
12
65
127
315
325
68
8
0
0
921
1996
0
0
0
6
120
164
224
209
64
5
0
0
792
1997
0
0
0
0
13
116
265
184
76
1
0
0
655
1998
0
0
0
1
124
230
315
269
178
14
0
0
1131
1999
0
0
0
23
9
143
304
291
78
3
0
0
851
2000
0
0
0
0
83
187
251
215
103
4
1
0
844
2001
0
0
0
24
42
172
249
282
87
1
0
0
857

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